The Ghebers of Hebron
by Samuel F. Dunlop
Was it ever said Orientals could not lie or that the ancient Jews could not? - S. F. Dunlop
It is necessary to discuss Hebron and its surroundings closely because it provides a most essential key to the geography as well as history of the past - Comyns Beaumont
Let us never forget that we have to do with the writings of a caste of priests in Judea, whose sacred stories, whatever their relation to history, were presumably connected with the interests of their caste.
Missing Dates of Exodus
There is no date in Genesis and Exodus, nor of the Egyptian dynasties.
The scanty relics of the Aryan languages of Asia Minor found in inscriptions and the glosses of Greek grammarians belong to the Western division of the (Aryan) family - Prof. A. H. Sayce
The Ghebers (or Ghiborim)
We trace this people back to a most interesting source the city of the Achabara then occupied by a race of mighty warriors called the Kheta (Hetha) who defended themselves later against Ramses the Great. It stood in the mountains west of the Dead Sea where Chebron, one of the oldest cities of Judah (now called Hebron), stands. The word Acbar means 'mighty,' and the Egyptians knew the Achabara by that name, for at an early period they never entirely conquered them. From the word Cabar or Gabar (also meaning ' mighty ') comes the word Geber or Gheber which (as the Kheta of Khebron were fire-worshipers) was in time used to denote the ancient people who were, like all the Old Canaanites, very much controlled by that form of religion. (See Genesis 17:7, Deut 5:24)
The Khatti (Hittites)
The Bible describes the Phoenicians in the north as Kananites, in the south as Pelestim or Philistians. The land Caleb (Egyptian Khalebu) was near the district of the Katti (Kheth or Keth) at Hebron, while the Khatti (Katti Kheta) extended to the south as far as the country of the lower Ruthen (Arad) and Idumea (Mt. Seir, Edom).
The Khati (Hittites) had from remote antiquity a form of picture-writing which was known on the road between Ephesus and Sardis, and also from Kappadokia to the Aegean Sea (See Rawlinson, Ancient Egypt II and A. H. Sayce, Biblical Archaeology)
Kebir is a name of fire. The Gebirs are the fire-worshipers, and the Cabiri are the seven spirits of fire. Compare the Arabian idol Heber and the Ghebers at Hebron.
Over all this region Adonis (Saturn) was adored under various names by the fire-worshipers; for they called Dionysus-Adon (Adonis) in the Lebanon, Adoni and Adonai in Jerusalem, Sat, Set, in Philistia and Seb or Sabi in Arabia. Euripides, Herodotus, and Movers leave no doubt upon the point.
The Jewish religion is a form of the Dionysus-worship; and Adonis, Adonai, Osiris, Dionysus, all are the Sun – S. F. Dunlop
Plutarch distinctly asserts that Dionysus is Adonis. In proof of this he adduces the mitre worn by the Jewish high priest, his fawn-skin dress, the bells depending from it, the incarved thyrsus exhibited on parts of the prominent, elevated, structure facing the people.
Pagan Origins (Dualism)
The Jewish philosophy rested on the doctrine of spirit and matter - the basis of the entire oriental philosophy from the Nile to India, including Assyria and Babylon.
Under the Romans the Arabia beyond the Jordan was one of the most fertile and populous countries on earth. Not many years ago 446 ruined or deserted places were counted in the districts beyond the Jordan, Syria and the Holy Land.
Hebron is at once a Hittite and an Amorite town; and Ezekiel declares (16:45) that the mother of Jerusalem was a Hittite and the father an Amorite.
Josephus calls the Hyksos "Our Ancestors."
…the object of Josephus, in his reply to Apion, was to identify his ancestors and ' Exodus ' with these very Hyksos who long held Lower Egypt.
According to Deuteronomy 13:5 the Hebrews were thought to be the Hyksos, and Joseph expressly says so.
I have always believed, on the strength of Numbers 13:22, that Manetho had traditional authority for his statement that Jerusalem was built by the Hyksos after their expulsion from Egypt and there is much to be said on behalf of the theory of Mariette and others that the leaders of the Hyksos were Hittites. However this may be, the discovery that Hittites and Amorites were associated in Northern Syria confirms the Biblical narrative which assigns a colony of Hittites to the south of Judah.
The name Gazar or Gezer (1 Kings 9:16-17) may be added to Okhosath, to get at the root of the name Hukousos (the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings). The conjunction of the name Amalekites, Philistines, Geshuri, Gezeri, with Gath and the Egyptian Kesh, shows us who the Hyksos were and their primitive homes. whence they entered into Egypt. The Amalekites (1 Samuel 27:8) follow the names Geshuri and Gezeri.
It should not be difficult to detect the nationality of the Hyksos, for Manetho and Herodotus mention Phoenician and Philistine Shepherds.
Taylor speaks of the sharp Semitic profile of the Hyksos, while, according to Uhlemann, Hyksos and Israelites are represented alike on the monuments.
…all the following dynasties to the twelfth (Shepherd dynasty) were kings of foreign origin but who had become completely established in Egypt.
…the names of the Hyksos kings are both Egyptian and Semite.
How could these Arabs or Phoenician Shepherds have got across the Nile without an invitation? We have to suppose that they had friends in the Delta who were hostile to the Memphite regime. The Shepherds held Lower Egypt. Africanus testifies that they were Phoenicians.
The long contest between the Egyptians and Hyksos mentioned by Manetho occurred during the 17th dynasty from Amosis to Tuthmosis III. The former completely broke the foreign dominion and drove back the Hyksos to the northern part of the Delta; but it was Tuthmosis who first succeeded in sending them out of their last stronghold of refuge, Avaris.
…the Jews were the martial Hyksos moving along the sea-shore road towards Palestine.
Manetho specified the whole time of the residence of the Hyksos in Egypt, up to their departure from Avaris, to be 511 years.
…it is allowable to fancy that the story of the Exodus is a work of the imagination, probably intended to change some accounts of the expulsion of the Hyksos driven out of Egypt, and to represent such events, if they ever occurred, as the Exodus of the Jews.
Strabo says that, being a mixed population of Egyptians, Arabs and Phoenicians, the most correct report of those who are trusted in regard to the temple at Jerusalem exhibits the Egyptians as the ancestors of those now called Ioudeans (Jews).
He (Manetho) is quoted by Josephus as saying that the Hyksos established themselves in Judaea and built Jerusalem.
The Hebrew God bore the name El Sadi, Sadi, Set, Seth.
Sada meant "fire." From Asad (or Asat) we derive Asatel, Setel, Sat, Set, Seth God of fire of Tyrians, Kananites, Kenites, Philistians and Egyptians, the God of the Hyksos-kings that the Egyptians feared as the Devil.
It was as it looks to be, the name of the Canaanite fire-god of the Phoenician Sea, and the worshipers of Sad, Sed, Set, or Seth seem to have been known in Egypt at an early period as the Setou or Sheto. Here, then, we have the early status of the Palestine Ghebers at Ghebron and elsewhere as Sethites or the Children of Seth in the lands of the Dionysus-Adonis worshippers, extending themselves from Byblos down to Memphis in Egypt.
The Hyksos entered Egypt as Setites (Sethians), but came out from Egypt as Asirians (Osirians).
Set was worshiped in Philistia and the Delta. Set was Typhon; and Avaris was a Typhonian city. The ancients and chiefly the Egyptians held that the Jews worshiped Saturnus-Typhon (Set).
In lower Egypt the worship of Seth was only in the Eastern Delta and perhaps in Memphis, Tanis and Avaris (at or near Pelusium) were two chief seats of his worship. In Tanis he had a great temple.
Set was god of the Khita, of Memphis and Lower Egypt under the Hyksos.
According to Wiedemann, Set was adored in Egypt. The word Setim (Sheto) is the same as Sethim; and the Jews are Sethites. The Sabians derived their religion from Seth. Set (Seth) was worshiped in the land of the Sethim and all the way from the Nile to the Lebanon, by Hyksos, Jews, Philistines and Transjordans.
The Sheto mentioned as adversaries of the Egyptians were the worshipers of Set; Set is the burning, destructive, solar force, the red Typhon.
Seth arranged the year, and means pillar.
The Children of Seth set up two steles on which the science of astronomy was inscribed… The followers of Seth set up pillars in the Syriau land and were called in Egypt Shetha or Sheto.
As evil demon, Set appears mostly as flame, and in the Ritual (Book of the Dead) as pursuer of souls. The deceased must have knowledge, must know the magic sentences, and perceive that he is identical with the Deity. Otherwise he falls under the power of the evil spirits and is subject to the new death.
Corrupt But Intelligent
Then Apapi is no barbarian but an enlightened prince who has a college of hierogrammatei, sacred scribes, learned men. He is the only Shepherd King whose entire cartouche has come down to us…with this "Shepherd King" we come upon the finale of the oppression of Egypt.
…the Papyrus Sallier reveals that only the "Shepherd King" has a council of learned scribes, while the Theban's councilors are all military leaders. This is in itself evidence that the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing began in the North, and the circumstance that no early and greatly inferior status of the said writing has been discovered seems to point to the importation of letters into Egypt from abroad.
Bible Speaks of Hyksos Expulsion
And Abram went up out of Misraim (Egypt) and his wife and all (the people) that were his, and Lot with him, to the Negeb. And Abram was very powerful in cattle and silver and gold. And he went on his locomotions (departures) from Negeb to Beth El, to the place where his tent was at first, between Beth-El and Hai! (See Genesis 13:1-4)
Those Egyptian priests, says Lepsius, were versed in astronomy, but mysterious and far from communicative; it was only after the lapse of time, and by polite attentions, that they allowed themselves to be induced to communicate some of their doctrines: but still the most part was kept concealed.
Was not connected with the planet of that name, but with the sun. He was the equal of El or El Sadi (Set) - Mtsar
Cain & Abel (Set vs Horus)
Since the Egyptians admitted that their Osiris vs. Typhon myth formed part of their Mysteries it is impossible for the Jews to deny that the very same myth, the Abel vs. Cain story, was a portion of the Mysteries of Jewish hidden wisdom.
The region of the Chaldeans was the nurse of the ancient philosophy. The Mosaic philosophy is Chaldean.
The Jews closely followed the Persians in their theory of the end of the world, and claimed kin with them.
Phoenicians in Egypt
Also known as the Khetians and Kebriones. Known to Jews as the Gabor, near to Gheber - Mtsar
The Hebrew and Phoenician languages are practically identical.
The Hebrew language was Phoenician.
It was an old Phoenician tradition that Saturn had granted the Land of the South to the God Taut, and Taut appears to have got a good share of it, even so far south as Egypt. The Phoenician Taut is the Egyptian Tat, Tot, Thoth.
The oldest traditions of the Hebrews were also preserved among the Phoenicians and the other peoples of the same race.
Kronos, therefore, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, king of the country, and afterwards after the end of his life sanctified into the star of Kronos, etc. In this myth what is Phoenician and what is Israelite are mixed up together, and the intent is to exhibit the descent of the Hebrews in the usual way from Saturn, who was regarded by the ancients as the Israelite Abraham, through etymological and historical combinations as they are current among the people.
According to Dunlop, the Phoenicians placed two pillars in front of their temples., a custom adopted by the Egyptians – Mtsar
Phoenicians as Hyksos
Phoenician Shepherds entered Egypt.
Gods to Patriarchs
The Phoenicians and Hebrews euhemerized their Gods into patriarchs.
Abraham and Sarah are brother and sister, like Osiris and Isis.
Sarah (or Asara) is a personification of Ashera, female consort of Jehovah, the “burning bush” of Mosaic lore - Mtsar
The Real Adam
Tum's name would seem to have been given to the place named Atam in Exodus.
Tum, like Adonis, was considered the Greatest of Gods. Turn was styled 'the maker of men,' 'the Universal Lord,' 'the Creator God,' and 'the great Lord of created beings,' 'the producer of the gods.’
From the Assyrian and Babylonian religion we may infer in many particulars to Egyptian usages. Thus from the Hebrew, too, we may infer resemblances.
It was the usage in the Egyptian Mysteries to circumcise the Initiated, and the Jews in Egypt could not bear the reproach of being uncircumcised. The Syrians of Palestine adopted this rite from Egypt.
The Phoenician euphemerism disposed of Ptah and Adam…by mentioning Ptah under the name Technites (the Architect, Khnemu) and Adam under the names Geinos-Autochthon (earthy or sprung from the earth).
The International Magi
The Assyrian Chief priest Nergal Sarezar bore the name of his God Nergal Sarezar, and the Assyrians had, in common with the Persians and Babylonians, the Great Festival of Anaitis, also, like the Persians, the institution of the Magi which had come with the Chaldeans and Babylonians.
Of early Arabia we know but little except its worship of Saturn, Kronos, Dionysus and Aphrodite Ourania, and in the sketches of ancient Judea we are introduced to Adon (Iachoh) the Lebanon Life-god and to Ashera (the Syrian Venus), Sarah.
The God El was the primal God of the Semite race known to the Hebrews as Hael (Hel), the Greek Aelios and Helios.
In the Bible, El is a name of the Hebrew God. Movers held that the Highest God of all the Semites, El, was originally the same as the one worshiped by the Israelites.
Bel was regarded as the " Lord of the world who dost dwell in the temple of the sun" - (See Prof Sayce Hibbert Lectures)
The Hebrews adored Bal (Mithra who rolls round the Wandering Planets) - the sun, moon, and the (five) planets. Consequently their symbolism placed a Gold Candlestick with seven lamps to indicate these Sabaoth (seven great ones).
High Places (Hills, Mounds, Monts)
Bel's temples were on the High Places.
Like the horse, the lion represents the sun gods, as well solar worship.
The conjoined heads of 'lion and man' were represented on the veil of the temple of the Jews.
Book of the Dead
The chapters come mostly from Heliopolis, and secondly from Hermopolis. Only one chapter appears to originate from Thebes. It is thought the Book and Ritual predates the Amen Ra period, going back to the cult of Osiris - Mtsar
The Tower of Bel at Babylon with its seven stages is duplicated in the Syrian and Hebrew-Gheber.
The largest part of the Jews lived in Babylonia, where Bel-Mithra was worshiped.
The Chaldeans had the mysterious Name Iao, the Jews had the unspeakable word Ihoh, the tetragramaton…and the Phoenicians had "trina littera" and the mysterious Name Iao, the Iao of the Chaldeans…the mysterious ineffable Name at Jerusalem, consisting of four letters, stands between the equally mysterious Iao on the Euphrates and the Iao of the Phoenicians.
Orion-Sahou was consecrated to Osiris. Orion was the star of the Three Kings which rose to show the time and place of birth in heaven some 6,000 years ago, when the vernal equinox was in the sign of the Bull. (One can see Orion near to Gemini).
Orion is the Mighty Hunter, closely connected with Hercules.
Meaning the sun, as in Mt. Seir, etc. Terms of respect, such as Sire, Sir, Sidar and Shah may derive from this.
The Egyptian name for paradise is Aahlu or Aalu (also Aaru or Arru). For Massey this referred to the circumpolar region of everlasting stars - Mtsar
The Sacred Number 7 was everywhere from the Euphrates to the Nile.
Egyptians believed that paradise is an island surrounded by a holy stream.
He (God) is many times called Sabaoth as the one who is over the Seven Orbits, that is the Creator.
Astar meant a fire star, like aster in Greek; hence Astareta, Astarta, Ashtoret, Astarte.
Bel and Istar were among the Hebrews Bal and Astarta, Astarta too in Egypt. Ash (fire, life) becomes Asara, Azara, Ashera in Judaea and Phoenicia.
The oldest symbols of Ashera were a tree, tree-trunk, unworked wood, a living tree, since in its green growth an instance of physical life was apparent.
The Ashera, or some corresponding goddess in Persia, appears at times represented in oval shape.
Manasseh set up a graven image of Ashera at Jerusalem.
Baptism was one of the observances in the worship of Adonis in Mesopotamia and Arabia. Those initiated in the Mysteries of Mithra were baptized.
Christianity and Mithraism
The change to the Christian religion seems to have been helped on by the ideas previously taught in the Mysteries, and more or less taken up by the Jews and others. The Dionysus Mysteries were a concurrent factor in producing that mental status that predisposed minds towards the Resurrection theory and Christian sentiment.
The Chaldean Evangelists
The Evangel according to the Hebrews was written in the Chaldean and Syrian language, but in Hebrew letters. It was, then, Chaldaean in form, origin and doctrine.
Nasoreans, Iesseans, or Jessians (Proto-Christians)
Was there a sect of the Nazoria called Iesseans (as Epiphanius says). Matthew says many things to confirm Epiphanius in this particular. Matthew describes them as Essenes.
The Babylonian and Jewish Kabalah preceded the Christianism of the gospels. The gnosis was Hindu, Persian, Babylonian, and included the Egyptian gnosis as exemplified in the writings of Hermes Trismegistus, the Jewish gnosis, and whatever of these was infused into individual Sabians, Nazoria and Ebionim.
…tells us that the Nazorenes were before Christ, and knew not Christ: and what is said of the Nazoria in the desert is equally true of the Ebionites, for they lived together and the two names are names of the Transjordan and Nabathaean Ascetics. These were their distinguishing designations, when, under the Baptism of John, the command came to 'Go out from the Great Desert.' If these Nazoria had not gone out to Antioch where they first learned to be called Christians, we might to-day have to look in vain for the pope of Rome and the Church of England.
Origin of Nasorean
The word Asaia (physician) is the root of the word Iessaia (healers), and the words zar and nazar are the root of Nazoria (Nazarenes) meaning self-denial, abstinence.
The Moses Fraud
The divine Sekra wrote with his finger upon a stone 42 questions for Budha. Ten tablets of stone were also written by the finger of Alahim.
Suppression of the Pharisees
…we must remember that the heavy hand that had crushed Jerusalem had in some degree deprived the Pharisees of power. If Jerusalem had not been destroyed, who among the Jews would have ventured to write that the Pharisees, the proudest sect and the most powerful, were a generation of vipers? To take the religion of the Initiated out of their hands, to combine it with Persian and Essene doctrines, to connect it with a man, and to preach it to the uninitiated and the poor, this was to originate a Christianity.
Siva is the only Hindu deity to whom animal sacrifices were offered. They were offered to Osiris, Dionysus-Iachoh and the Jewish Moloch, for the Jewish religion is the Dionysus-Mithra worship, with its baptism, purifications and lustrations.
Son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham, his name was changed by Jehovah to Israel. The word Jacob means “deceitful,” “crafty” or “sly.” No kidding. The mythmongers knew what they were doing with their texts. Israel as it appears as person and place is indeed the product of scribal chicanery - Mtsar
The Egyptians considered the heaven a vast sea, as in Genesis 1:6. The sun goes through the heaven in a bark, of which he occupies the centre. The celestial sea which environs all parts of our universe has been the theatre of the first divine manifestations.
The Egyptian priests abominated the sea and called salt the froth of Typhon (Set).
The whole desert region between Palestine and Egypt was once far more productive than now and could support a considerable population.
Once the valley of the Jordan was a series of lakes, and the Dead Sea of far greater extent than now.
The climate of ancient Palestine was always of varied character owing to the variation of level in different spots, but its hills and mountains, together with the wooded character of the country at an early period, must have made most of it a tolerable abode for man.
The Major Arcana
the Dog is leader of souls, Hermes kunokephalos, the psychagogos, when he carries them into the hemisphere of light; psychopompos when he leads them in the other solstice or Equinox (Libra) into the dark hemisphere.
The Thirteenth Sign
…the constellation Serpentarius…who ascends at the same time as Libra. The name of this serpent, the serpent of Eve, as it is still called by the Persians, or Heva, as it is called in the Arabian spheres, has been preserved.
Here for Map of Hebron
Here for the Ghebers of Hebron (Book)